Beyond the poster, mural and graffiti, was there a painterly art in the pre-digital age that found a fitting place on the street and the square, the citizen venues where direct democracy and the people's rights first emerged? Is there an ethically responsive and socially responsible praxis which may yield visual works of enduring value without sacrificing the humanistic imperative of communicability? Since the 1950s such questions concerned Spanish artists in all styles (Tapies, Genoves, Ibarrola, Equipo Cronica). Like Goya before them, these painters tried to help their society transition from political tyranny to more inclusive forms of participation. Prerequisite: Advanced reading knowledge of Spanish.